**What is the difference between Bit and Symbol in the perspective of transmission?**

Symbols use bandwidth more efficiently than bits. For example, in the case of QPSK, one symbol or signal waveform is represented by 2 bits. Hence symbol rate is one-half of the bit rate. As a result, it occupies half bandwidth compared to the BPSK waveform.

**1. What is a constellation diagram**

A constellation diagram represents a signal modulated by a digital signal, such as quadrature amplitude modulation (QAM) or quadrature phase shift keying (QPSK). [Read More]

**QPSK**

Assume we need to modulate four signals or symbols with phase differences of Ï€/2 so that the signals can be orthogonal, which will minimize their mutual interference. Then we can modulate those signals in the following way:

s(t)=Acos(2Ï€fct) for 00

= A cos (2Ï€fct + 90) for 01

= A cos (2Ï€fct + 180) for 10

= A cos (2Ï€fct + 270) for 11

Here, the first signal is modulated with a carrier signal. The next signal is modulated with Ï€/2 shifted same carrier signal, the third signal with additional Ï€/2 shifted to the same carrier signal, and so on. The modulated first signal is represented by the symbol '00', the second modulated signal by the symbol '01', and so forth.

In the above figure, we've shown a constellation diagram of 4 QPSK modulations.

Also, read about the Constellation Diagrams of ASK, FSK, and PSK, Constellation Diagrams of M-ary QAM

**2. What is the significance of M-ary PSK?**

In Mary PSK, given data bits are modulated with any of the M numbers of phase-shifted carrier signals. Let's send M number of data bits modulated with M number of phase-shifted carriers. Theoretically, there will be no interference (theoretically) between them, and we will achieve 8 times the previous data rate (without modulation).

The RF carrier's phase (or frequency) varies instead of only varying the RF signal's phase, frequency, or amplitude. Mary modulation algorithms transfer baseband data into four or more alternative RF carrier signals since the envelope and phase provide two degrees of freedom. We are talking about four carrier signals because here, 2 or more bits form a symbol, and from 2 bits, we can represent 2^(2) or 4 different signals. M-ary modulation is the name given to such modulation schemes. Two or more bits are joined together to create symbols in the M-ary modulation scheme, and one of the available signals S1(t), S2(t),..., Sm(t) is sent during each symbol period Ts. M = 2^n, where n is an integer that defines the number of bits/symbols, the total number of possible signals.

The modulation is called M-ary ASK, M-ary PSK, or M-ary FSK, depending on whether the amplitude, phase, or frequency is altered. M-ary modulation techniques are appealing for application in bandlimited channels because they improve bandwidth efficiency while sacrificing power efficiency. For example, an 8-PSK system utilizes the channel log8 (base 2) = 3 times more efficiently than a 2-PSK (also known as BPSK) system, as the bandwidth of a physical channel is always limited. M-ary signaling, on the other hand, has lower error performance due to the reduced distances between signals in the constellation diagram. The following sections go through a few of the most common M-ary signaling methods.

## 8-PSK

**3. What can we conclude from the above M-ary PSK**

Both QPSK and QAM are used to send signals in the form of symbols and to increase the bit rate. If you send a symbol instead of a single bit at a time, then multiple prior data rates will be achieved. Those mary modulation techniques are used to multiplex data.

If you are using simple ASK, FSK, or 2-PSK, and if the data rate is N

Then, the following modulation techniques increase data rates further.

4-PSK, 4-QAM ==>2N

Because here 2 bits are sent as a symbol once

8-PSK, 8-QAM ==>3N

Because here 3 bits are sent as a symbol once

Read More about OFDM, QAM, QPSK, BPSK, FSK, etc.